*Note: This example implements a GAN from scratch. The same model could
be implemented much more easily with the ``dc.models.GAN`` class. See
the MNIST GAN notebook for an example of using that class. It can still
be useful to know how to implement a GAN from scratch for advanced
situations that are beyond the scope of what the standard GAN class
supports.*

A Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) is a type of generative model. It consists of two parts called the “generator” and the “discriminator”. The generator takes random values as input and transforms them into an output that (hopefully) resembles the training data. The discriminator takes a set of samples as input and tries to distinguish the real training samples from the ones created by the generator. Both of them are trained together. The discriminator tries to get better and better at telling real from false data, while the generator tries to get better and better at fooling the discriminator.

A Conditional GAN (CGAN) allows additional inputs to the generator and discriminator that their output is conditioned on. For example, this might be a class label, and the GAN tries to learn how the data distribution varies between classes.

For this example, we will create a data distribution consisting of a set of ellipses in 2D, each with a random position, shape, and orientation. Each class corresponds to a different ellipse. Let’s randomly generate the ellipses.

```
import deepchem as dc
import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf
n_classes = 4
class_centers = np.random.uniform(-4, 4, (n_classes, 2))
class_transforms = []
for i in range(n_classes):
xscale = np.random.uniform(0.5, 2)
yscale = np.random.uniform(0.5, 2)
angle = np.random.uniform(0, np.pi)
m = [[xscale*np.cos(angle), -yscale*np.sin(angle)],
[xscale*np.sin(angle), yscale*np.cos(angle)]]
class_transforms.append(m)
class_transforms = np.array(class_transforms)
```

This function generates random data from the distribution. For each point it chooses a random class, then a random position in that class’ ellipse.

```
def generate_data(n_points):
classes = np.random.randint(n_classes, size=n_points)
r = np.random.random(n_points)
angle = 2*np.pi*np.random.random(n_points)
points = (r*np.array([np.cos(angle), np.sin(angle)])).T
points = np.einsum('ijk,ik->ij', class_transforms[classes], points)
points += class_centers[classes]
return classes, points
```

Let’s plot a bunch of random points drawn from this distribution to see what it looks like. Points are colored based on their class label.

```
%matplotlib inline
import matplotlib.pyplot as plot
classes, points = generate_data(1000)
plot.scatter(x=points[:,0], y=points[:,1], c=classes)
```

```
<matplotlib.collections.PathCollection at 0x11fc3d860>
```

Now let’s create the model for our CGAN.

```
import deepchem.models.tensorgraph.layers as layers
model = dc.models.TensorGraph(learning_rate=1e-4, use_queue=False)
# Inputs to the model
random_in = layers.Feature(shape=(None, 10)) # Random input to the generator
generator_classes = layers.Feature(shape=(None, n_classes)) # The classes of the generated samples
real_data_points = layers.Feature(shape=(None, 2)) # The training samples
real_data_classes = layers.Feature(shape=(None, n_classes)) # The classes of the training samples
is_real = layers.Weights(shape=(None, 1)) # Flags to distinguish real from generated samples
# The generator
gen_in = layers.Concat([random_in, generator_classes])
gen_dense1 = layers.Dense(30, in_layers=gen_in, activation_fn=tf.nn.relu)
gen_dense2 = layers.Dense(30, in_layers=gen_dense1, activation_fn=tf.nn.relu)
generator_points = layers.Dense(2, in_layers=gen_dense2)
model.add_output(generator_points)
# The discriminator
all_points = layers.Concat([generator_points, real_data_points], axis=0)
all_classes = layers.Concat([generator_classes, real_data_classes], axis=0)
discrim_in = layers.Concat([all_points, all_classes])
discrim_dense1 = layers.Dense(30, in_layers=discrim_in, activation_fn=tf.nn.relu)
discrim_dense2 = layers.Dense(30, in_layers=discrim_dense1, activation_fn=tf.nn.relu)
discrim_prob = layers.Dense(1, in_layers=discrim_dense2, activation_fn=tf.sigmoid)
```

We’ll use different loss functions for training the generator and discriminator. The discriminator outputs its predictions in the form of a probability that each sample is a real sample (that is, that it came from the training set rather than the generator). Its loss consists of two terms. The first term tries to maximize the output probability for real data, and the second term tries to minimize the output probability for generated samples. The loss function for the generator is just a single term: it tries to maximize the discriminator’s output probability for generated samples.

For each one, we create a “submodel” specifying a set of layers that will be optimized based on a loss function.

```
# Discriminator
discrim_real_data_loss = -layers.Log(discrim_prob+1e-10) * is_real
discrim_gen_data_loss = -layers.Log(1-discrim_prob+1e-10) * (1-is_real)
discrim_loss = layers.ReduceMean(discrim_real_data_loss + discrim_gen_data_loss)
discrim_submodel = model.create_submodel(layers=[discrim_dense1, discrim_dense2, discrim_prob], loss=discrim_loss)
# Generator
gen_loss = -layers.ReduceMean(layers.Log(discrim_prob+1e-10) * (1-is_real))
gen_submodel = model.create_submodel(layers=[gen_dense1, gen_dense2, generator_points], loss=gen_loss)
```

Now to fit the model. Here are some important points to notice about the code.

- We use
`fit_generator()`

to train only a single batch at a time, and we alternate between the discriminator and the generator. That way. both parts of the model improve together. - We only train the generator half as often as the discriminator. On
this particular model, that gives much better results. You will often
need to adjust
`(# of discriminator steps)/(# of generator steps)`

to get good results on a given problem. - We disable checkpointing by specifying
`checkpoint_interval=0`

. Since each call to`fit_generator()`

includes only a single batch, it would otherwise save a checkpoint to disk after every batch, which would be very slow. If this were a real project and not just an example, we would want to occasionally call`model.save_checkpoint()`

to write checkpoints at a reasonable interval.

```
batch_size = model.batch_size
discrim_error = []
gen_error = []
for step in range(20000):
classes, points = generate_data(batch_size)
class_flags = dc.metrics.to_one_hot(classes, n_classes)
feed_dict={random_in: np.random.random((batch_size, 10)),
generator_classes: class_flags,
real_data_points: points,
real_data_classes: class_flags,
is_real: np.concatenate([np.zeros((batch_size,1)), np.ones((batch_size,1))])}
discrim_error.append(model.fit_generator([feed_dict],
submodel=discrim_submodel,
checkpoint_interval=0))
if step%2 == 0:
gen_error.append(model.fit_generator([feed_dict],
submodel=gen_submodel,
checkpoint_interval=0))
if step%1000 == 999:
print(step, np.mean(discrim_error), np.mean(gen_error))
discrim_error = []
gen_error = []
```

```
999 1.55168287337 0.0408441077992
1999 1.09775845635 0.10187220595
2999 0.645102792382 0.287973743975
3999 0.680221937269 0.421649519399
4999 1.01530539939 0.21572620222
5999 0.355141538292 0.51490073061
6999 0.342691998512 0.522037278384
7999 0.668916338205 0.268597296476
8999 0.716327803612 0.262840693563
9999 0.713392020047 0.29249474436
10999 0.701064119875 0.309196961999
11999 0.69168697983 0.326060062766
12999 0.688140272975 0.335194783509
13999 0.687209348738 0.336962600589
14999 0.685669041574 0.343026666999
15999 0.686265172005 0.343531137526
16999 0.686260136843 0.346471596062
17999 0.687051311135 0.347908975482
18999 0.689062111676 0.344198456705
19999 0.691419941247 0.344754773915
```

Have the trained model generate some data, and see how well it matches the training distribution we plotted before.

```
classes, points = generate_data(1000)
feed_dict = {random_in: np.random.random((1000, 10)),
generator_classes: dc.metrics.to_one_hot(classes, n_classes)}
gen_points = model.predict_on_generator([feed_dict])
plot.scatter(x=gen_points[:,0], y=gen_points[:,1], c=classes)
```

```
<matplotlib.collections.PathCollection at 0x120561a58>
```